Didi Akinyelure is a prime-time news anchor in Nigeria and presents business news for CNBC, which broadcasts across the continent.
She will start a three-month placement at the BBC in London in September.
The award was established to honour Komla Dumor, a presenter for BBC World News, who died suddenly aged 41 in 2014.
Ms Akinyelure said Mr Dumor was someone she admired.
“He told the African story with so much passion for the continent, giving a balanced view and inspiring so many.”
One of the judges who selected Ms Akinyelure, BBC Africa’s Josephine Hazeley, said Ms Akinyelure particularly excelled in telling business stories, “which was an area Komla was also passionate about”.
The first Komla Dumor Award was won by Ugandan news anchor Nancy Kacungira.